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Corrélation entre composition corporelle et niveau de performance en course à pied

Le Marathon

Skinfold thicknesses associated with distance running performance in highly trained runners.

Auteur(s): A.-L. Arrese, E.-S. Ostariz
Réf.: J Sport Sci, 2006, Vol 24, Iss 1, pp 69-76
Adresse: Arrese A.-L., Univ Zaragoza, Dept Fisiatria & Enfermeria, Fac Ciencias Actividad Fis & Deporte, C. Domingo Miral S-N, E-50009 Zaragoza, SPAIN
Mots clés: ANTHROPOMETRY ; SKINFOLDS DISTRIBUTION ; ATHLETES ; ELITE ; HOMOGENEOUS

Résumé : It has been postulated that additional adiposity has a negative effect on performance in heterogeneous groups of runners.
Previous studies have not tested this hypothesis in homogeneous groups of elite runners. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the sum of skinfold thicknesses and specific single skinfold sites were related to competitive running performance in homogeneous groups of male and female elite athletes.
In total, 184 top-class runners (130 males and 54 females) volunteered to participate in the study. Skinfolds were measured at the following sites: biceps, triceps, subscapular, pectoral, iliac crest, abdominal, front thigh and medial calf. Runners were classified into groups in accordance with their best performance times. Correlation analysis and partial correlation coefficients that controlled for age and weight were applied to each single skinfold, the sum of six skinfolds (excluding biceps) and the extremity (sum of triceps, front thigh, medial calf) to trunk (sum of subscapular, iliac crest, abdominal) ratio and performance. Performance was rated by the scoring procedures of the International Amateur Athletics Federation.

In male runners, the pectoral, iliac crest, abdominal, biceps, triceps, subscapular skinfolds and the sum of six skinfolds were not associated with performance score for any of the distances. High correlations were found between the front thigh (r = 0.78, P = 0.000) and medial calf (r = 0.55, P = 0.018) skinfolds and 1500m run time, and between the front thigh (r = 0.59, P = 0.014) and medial calf (r = 0.57, P = 0.017) skinfolds and 10,000m run time.
In female runners, the front thigh and medial calf skinfolds were highly correlated with 400m run time (r = 0.71, P = 0.022 and r = 0.81, P = 0.005, respectively).
The results of this study indicate that skinfold thicknesses in the lower limb are positively associated with running time over several distances, and may be a useful predictor of athletic performance.

Fiches Pratiques

Marathon : exemple d’un petit déjeuner pour une compétition le matin (Pdf, 148 k).
Marathon : exemple d’un menu de récuperation (Pdf, 111 k).
Source : Alimentation pour le Sportif, de la santé à la performance,
Dr S. Cascua et V. Rousseau, 286 pages, Ed. Amphora.

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